One of the key sources of heat is the urban heat island phenomenon which traps heat in thermal mass like concrete and black roads which absorb, store and then re-emit this heat to the urban air at night.

The urban heat island phenomenon has far-reaching environmental sustainability and human livability implications. Temperatures of urban air domes can range up to 10-16C (50-60F) warmer than the surrounding countryside.


  • Urban climate impact: intensification of extreme urban climatic events
  • Health consequences: increased heat-wave mortality, air-pollution intensification
  • Public safety consequences: public-realm avoidance-behavior, leading to increased crime opportunity
  • Energy consumption consequences: increased consumption of energy for air-conditioning of
  • buildings, unsustainable peak electricity demand, brown-outs
  • Global warming impact: urban thermal emissions are trapped by greenhouse gas emissions (CO ) thus contributing to climate-change






urban heat island





heat & global warming

urban heat island

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